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Thrombosis: Types (including Phlebothrombosis), Causes and Treatments- Medical Hex
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What is thrombosis

Blood clotting or coagulation that’s known as thrombosis is an intravascular coagulation of blood that usually lead to interruption of blood flow.

Thrombosis can be defined as the process of formation of solid mass in circulation from the constituents of flowing blood; the mass itself is called a thrombus.

Embolus is a clot that break off and travel to another part of the body through blood vessels, this process is called embolism.

Types of thrombosis

Thrombosis is mainly of 2 types:

  1. Atrial thrombosis: is when the thrombus occurs in the artery, and it’s composed of aggregation of platelet.
  2. Venous thrombosis (Phlebothrombosis): is when the thrombus occurs in a vein, and is composed of platelet aggregates and fibrin complexes. A common type of venous thrombosis is deep vein thrombosis (DVT). If the clot detaches and travel to the lung it will cause pulmonary embolism (PE).

Causes of thrombosis

The development of a Thrombus is related to one or more components of the Virchow triad, which include:

  1. endothelial injury (e.g., by hypertension, inflammation, or metabolic products)
  2. stasis or turbulent (abnormal blood flow)
  3. hypercoagulability of the blood (e.g., bed rest, tissue damage, malignant disease)

Venous thrombus is related to conditions that cause stasis of blood flow with increased concentrations of coagulation factors. Venous thrombosis may be caused by:

  • Immobility
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Shock
  • Venous obstruction
  • Dehydration
  • Cancer
  • Surgery

While arterial thrombus is associated with conditions that produce turbulent blood flow and platelet adherence.

Risk factors

High Risk for Thrombosis include:

  1. Lack of activity
  2. Myocardial infarction
  3. Atrial fibrillation
  4. Tissue injury (surgery, fracture, burn)
  5. Cancer
  6. Disseminated intravascular coagulation
  7. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia
  8. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

Treatment of thrombosis

The most common treatment used for mangment of thrombosis is by administration of an anticoagulant medication, specially:

  1. Heparin, is a fast-acting drug.
  2. Warfarin, its beneficial effects are felt after two or three days.

1. British Medical Association (2015). British Medical Association new guide to medicine & drugs. London: Dorling Kindersley.

2. Harsh Mohan/ Textbook of pathology/ 6th edition/ New Delhi, India/ Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers/ 2010

3. Mary Elizabeth Peyton Gupta/ Board Review Series BRS/ 5th edition/ United States/ Wolters Kluwer Health/ 2014

4. Vinay Kumar, Abul K. Abbas, Jon C. Aster/ Robbins Basic Pathology/ 9th edition/philadephia, United states/ Elsevier-Health sciences Divition/ 2012

5. Klatt, E.C. and Kumar, V. (2015). Robbins and Cotran review of pathology. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders.

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